LifeCare Diagnostic Medical Centre

Blood tests

A blood test usually involves taking a blood sample from a blood vessel in your arm for laboratory analysis to assess general state of health, organ function, infection, genetic condition and many more.

AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein; it is a cancer marker. It helps in the diagnosis and monitoring of certain cancers in the liver, testicles or ovaries. 

AFP are produced when the liver cells are regenerating due to diseases such as chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. If the AFP is markedly increased, it could indicate certain cancers. That is why AFP is a reliable cancer marker. 

Risk

Suspicion of liver, testicles, or ovaries cancer, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis.

Normal Value

[<15.0 ng/mL]

Preparations

No fasting required. 

This test only requires a small amount of blood and it is able to detect the 52 common allergens in the region. 

Allergens are substances that can cause an allergy. An allergy occurs when our body immune system exerts excessive response towards a normally harmless substance (allergen) by producing IgE (immunoglobulin E). 

When we are exposed to the similar allergen in the future, the body’s immune response will trigger the production of histamines, other inflammatory reaction and discomfort which may lead to a severe life threatening reaction like in the case of a bee sting. 

Allergens being tested:

Latex (1 allergen)

Foods (29 allergen)

- Rice, Wheat, Cow Milk, Goat Milk, Cheese, Soybean, Peanut, Hazelnut, Chocolate, egg Yolk, Egg White, Chicken, Beef, Mutton, Pork, Crab, Shrimp, Lobster, Mussel, Oyster, Codfish, Tuna, Salmon, Tomato, Carrot, Potato, Garlic, Baker’s Yeast, Strawberry

Grasses Pollens, Tree Pollens & Moulds (12 allergens): 

- Bermuda Grass, Timothy Grass, Short Ragweed, Common Mugwort, Goldenrod, Acacia, Pine, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Candida, Alternaria

Pets, Pests & Mites (10 allergens):

Cat Fur, Dog Fur, Chicken Fur, Duck Fur, German Cockroach, Oriental Cockroach, American Cockroach, Dust mites D Farinae, Dust Mites D.pteronyssinus, Dust mites Blomia tropicalis

Preparations

No fasting required. 

 

Ant-aging test allows us to keep up-to-date on our overall health. It measures various components of our blood including the hormones, vitamin levels, complete blood count, lipid profile, liver function or cancer markers. From there, we are able to make effective changes to improve our quality of life. 

Homocysteine is a common amino acid in your blood. You get it mostly from eating meat. High levels of it are linked to early development of heart disease. In fact, a high level of homocysteine is a risk factor for heart disease. It’s associated with low levels of vitamins B6, B12, and folate, as well as renal disease. 

 

Vitamin B-12 is a crucial B vitamin. It is needed for nerve tissue health, brain function, and the production of red blood cells and helps to create and regulate DNA.

 

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a male sex hormone (androgen) that is present in both men and women. This test measures the level of DHEAS in the blood. DHEAS:

  • Plays a role in developing male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty
  • Can be converted by the body into more potent androgens, such as testosterone and androstenedione
  • Can be converted into the female hormone estrogen

Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene. … IGF1 is a hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic (constructive metabolism) effects in adults.

 

Fasting Insulin levels could identify insulin resistance long before plasma glucose and HbA1c levels rise. Prediabetes” is one result of insulin resistance. 

 

Insulin resistance causes high cholesterol, high glucose, and high blood pressure. A high level of fasting insulin indicates insulin resistance and can encourage a person to make changes to lower it.

  

Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein made by your liver. It binds tightly to three sex hormones found in both men and women. These hormones are estrogen; dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and testosterone. SHBG carries these three hormones throughout your blood.

Although SHBG binds three hormones, the hormone that’s critical in this test is testosterone. SHBG controls the amount of testosterone that your body tissues can use. Too little testosterone in men and too much testosterone in women can cause problems. The level of SHBG in your blood changes because of factors such as sex and age. It can also change because of obesity, liver disease, and hyperthyroidism.

 

Folate (vitamin B-9) is important in red blood cell formation and for healthy cell growth and function. The nutrient is crucial during early pregnancy to reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spine.

A diet lacking foods rich in folate or folic acid can lead to a folate deficiency. Folate deficiency can also occur in people who have conditions, such as celiac disease, that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients from foods (malabsorption syndromes).

 

Free Testosterone measures the amount of unattached testosterone in your blood.

Testosterone is a male sex hormone (androgen) that helps male features develop. Testosterone is made in the testes and the adrenal glands. It causes the changes that occur in boys during puberty. Testosterone helps hair and muscles grow. It also helps the penis and testes grow. Testosterone also causes a boy’s voice to deepen. Men continue to make testosterone. It boosts sex drive and helps make sperm.

Women’s ovaries also make small amounts of testosterone. It helps many organs and body processes in women.

The pituitary gland in your brain controls the amount of testosterone your body makes.

Most of the testosterone in your blood attaches to 2 proteins: albumin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Some testosterone is not attached to proteins, or free. This is the testosterone that is easily used by your body.

If your healthcare provider thinks that you have low or high testosterone, he or she will first test total testosterone levels. This looks at all 3 types of testosterone. The free testosterone can help give more information when total testosterone is low.

Why this test?

Regular anti-aging check-ups allows us to plan for the future and adjust our lifestyle accordingly to correct what’s wrong.

Preparations

No fasting required.

 

Health Screening Packages with Anti-Aging Test

Super Platinum Plus Male Package

 

Super Platinum Plus Female Package

CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) is a cancer marker. It is often used to diagnose an ovarian cancer in individuals with very high risk of the disease. It is also used to monitor the progress of the cancer, cancer recurrence and for treatment monitoring. However, CA 125 alone is not enough to screen for ovarian cancer because it is generally raised in other noncancerous conditions as well. 

 

Risk

Strong family history of ovarian cancer, BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, 

 

Normal Value

[<35 U/mL]

 

Preparations

No fasting required. 

CA15-3 is known as cancer antigen 15-3, it is a cancer marker for the breast. It is mainly used to monitor an individual’s response to breast cancer treatment and disease recurrence. For example, if the marker levels are increasing despite adequate treatment, it shows that the cancer is not responding to the current treatment or it could be a recurrent cancer. 

 

CA15-3 levels are higher in most women with breast cancer that has already spread to other parts of the body (metastatic breast cancer). However, not all types of breasts cancer will cause CA15-3 levels to rise.



Procedure

There are no food or drink restrictions for the CA15-3 test. 

 

Normal Values

[<25 U/mL]

 

Preparations

No fasting required. 

CA19-9 (cancer antigen 19-9) is a cancer marker. High levels of CA19-9 are usually indicators of pancreatic cancer. But if could also indicate other kinds of cancer such as colon or stomach cancer. Apart from diagnosing cancer, it is also used for monitoring of the cancer progress and effectiveness of cancer treatment. 

 

Normal Value

[<39 U/mL]

 

Preparations

No fasting required. 

Calcium is one of the most important minerals in our body. It is essential for healthy bones and teeth. It is also essential for proper functioning of our nerves, muscles and heart. Therefore a blood test is usually performed to determine if the calcium level in our body is adequate.

CEA stands for carcinoembryonic antigen, it is a marker for colon cancer. It helps the doctors in predicting how the patient’s cancer will progress, effectiveness of treatment and to look for recurrence of cancer. 

 

The test is done to estimate the cancer progression and outcome. Doctors may use this information along with other test results to predict the course or outcome of the disease. 

 

It is done to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment too, an increase or decrease of CEA levels during treatment may reflect whether the treatment is working or not. 

 

CEA is helpful for detecting cancer recurrence. It is often used as a baseline measurement after diagnosis of a cancer so that it can be compared with future CEA levels. This information will be useful as the doctor can determine whether the cancer has returned. 



 Normal Value

[<5.0 ng/mL]

 

Preparations

No fasting required. 

A complete cholesterol test (also known as lipid profile), is a blood test that can measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood.

 

Total Cholesterol

Measures total amount of cholesterol in your body.

 

HDL Cholesterol

HDL, or good cholesterol, helps remove cholesterol from the blood and transport it to the liver for excretion. High levels of HDL are associated with a low risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease.

 

LDL Cholesterol

LDL, or bad cholesterol, helps deposit cholesterol in the blood vessel which leads to atherosclerosis. High levels of LDL are associated with high risk of coronary heart disease.

 

Total Cholesterol / HDL Cholesterol Ratio

One way to assess risk is to use the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, with lower values indicating lower risk.

 

Triglycerides

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood. Elevated levels of triglycerides may lead to coronary heart disease.

ColonSentry is a simple blood test that uses advanced gene expression technology used for the identification of colorectal cancer (CRC). It specifically measures the gene expression of 7 biomarkers gene in our blood. If the score detected is high, it could mean that the individual is suffering from colorectal cancer. 

It is understandable that many people do not like to have colonoscopies. Therefore, it is ideal to perform a blood-based biomarker-screening test as the first line for the general population at average risk. It is non-invasive and easy to perform. However, or patients in higher risk groups, colonoscopy will be the preferred method of screening. 

Colorectal cancer is the commonest cancer among Malaysian men and it is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. 

Preparations

No fasting required. 

It is done to detect the levels of COVID-19 antibody present in our blood after our second dose of COVID-19 vaccination or following COVID-19 infection. The purpose of this test is for individuals who want to know whether their body is responsive to the COVID-19 vaccination. The test can also be done to see if an individual has had a past infection with the Covid-19. 

A positive antibody result will not indicate if it is due to vaccination or a previous COVID-19 infection.

When to go

It is recommended to go 14 days after your second dose of COVID-19 vaccination. 

Procedure

3mL of blood sample is required. Fasting is not required prior to this test. 

 

EBV is also known as Epstein-Barr virus. It is associated with nose cancers. VCA (Viral capsid antigen) IgA usually appears early in EBV infections, it then slowly declines and persists for the rest of the individual’s life. 

 

Nose cancer is currently the leading cancer of ear-nose-throat (ENT) department. Due to its slow onset of symptoms, patient will usually discover this cancer at the late stages or the terminal stage. Since Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been closely associated with nose cancers, this screening test will be recommended for early detection and prevention of a nose cancer at early stages. 



Risk

Genetics, EBV infection

 

Preparations

No fasting required. 

It is done to screen for Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the most common form of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, there is a reduce response to insulin (insulin resistance) and progressive decline in the beta-cell function of our pancreas. Without the help of insulin, glucose utilization by our organs will be reduced. This contributes to high level of glucose in the blood.

Who should do this test?

  • Routine health screening test
  • Individual who are symptoms suggestive of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (Increased urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, waking up at night because of urination, easily feeling tired, lack of energy) 

Why should you do this test?

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is known to cause multiple complications such as heart diseases, kidney diseases, eye diseases, brain diseases and other infective complications. Worst-case scenario, it can lead to premature death, if left untreated. 

How to perform?

This test should be performed following a minimum of 8 hour fasting. 

Normal Results

Fasting blood glucose [3.5 – 5.6 mmol/L]

Random blood glucose [3.5 – 7.8 mmol/L]

Preparation 

Fasting is required prior to this test for at least 6-8 hours.

Free radicals cause diseases and aging. Our bodies have antioxidant systems to regulate the level of free radicals. 

 

When oxidative stress occurs, the antioxidant systems will be unable to detoxify these free radicles, as there is excessive amount of free radicals being generated. Oxidative stress is an imbalance of too much free radicals and too little antioxidant defenses in the body. 

 

Excessive free radicals can cause damage to our proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. As a result, our cells health is compromised. We will be more prone to disease, even cancer. 

 

Risk

Poor diet

Alcohol consumption

Smoking

Lack of sleep

Excessive stress

Infection

Exposure to sun, toxin or radiation

Pollution

 

Preparations 

There are no special preparations for this test 

A full blood exam is able to evaluate the cells that are circulating in our blood. This test is able to evaluate your overall health and detect different sorts of diseases. It is an extremely common test performed when an individual comes for a routine medical checkup.

 

A standard full blood exam will include:

  • Red blood cell (RBC): Transports oxygenated blood from lungs to all part of our body
  • Hemoglobin: A protein found in the red blood cell that helps carries oxygen to all parts of our body. 
  • Hematocrit: Measures the percentage of our total blood volume that consists of red blood cells. 
  • Red blood cell indices: Size of our red blood cells, average amount of hemoglobin in red blood cells
  • White blood cell (WBC): Helps fight infection and other diseases. 
  • White blood cell differential: Measures the five types of white blood cells present in our blood. (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils) 
  • Platelets: Helps in blood clotting

 

Preparation

No fasting required prior to this test.

Discover Your Genetic Risks for Diseases Early
Genetic screening can detect possible risks for many genetic diseases before symptoms appear. Based on the detailed results, you can work closely with your doctor to develop a suitable health management plan to mitigate or delay the possible onset of disease through preventive actions.

Benefits of Genetic Screening

Genetic screening could help you if:

  • Have a family history of cancer, heart attack, diabetes, stroke, cardiovascular, and/or metabolic diseases.
  • Would like to know your risk factors for inherited diseases or disorders.
  • Want to be more proactive in managing your health, and the health of your loved ones.

You have a unique mix of genes and genetic markers which are inherited from your parents. These markers may relate to disease risks. By knowing your risks, you can monitor your health closely and take proactive measures to live longer and healthier.

Understand & Manage Your Health With Genetic Screening

This test screens your DNA for genetic markers that are linked to inherited risk factors for a wide range of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancers. These markers serve as a ‘red flag’ in your DNA and can indicate if you are predisposed to a certain type of disease, disorder, or cancer.

With the information from these markers, you can be better prepared to make lifestyle and dietary changes to mitigate your health risks, if necessary. The comprehensive test results can help you to work with our doctor to develop a personalized health management plan for more effective prevention options.

All genetic markers screened have been published and experimentally replicated in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This test uses the latest research technologies available from illumine, Inc. and Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc, USA.

 

It is done to screen for Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the most common form of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, there is a reduce response to insulin (insulin resistance) and progressive decline in the beta-cell function of our pancreas. Without the help of insulin, glucose utilization by our organs will be reduced. This contributes to high level of glucose in the blood.

Who should do this test?

  • Routine health screening test
  • Individual who are symptoms suggestive of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (Increased urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, waking up at night because of urination, easily feeling tired, lack of energy) 

Why should you do this test?

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is known to cause multiple complications such as heart diseases, kidney diseases, eye diseases, brain diseases and other infective complications. Worst-case scenario, it can lead to premature death, if left untreated. 

How to perform?

This test should be performed following a minimum of 8 hour fasting. 

Normal Results

Fasting blood glucose [3.5 – 5.6 mmol/L]

Random blood glucose [3.5 – 7.8 mmol/L]

Preparation 

Fasting is required prior to this test for at least 6-8 hours.


Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is used to determine the average concentration of glucose in the blood. It is helpful in diagnosing and identifying risk of developing diabetes, to monitor the patient’s diabetes disease progression and to aid in treatment decisions.

The level of HbA1c is proportional to the concentration of glucose in the blood and red blood cell life span, usually covering a period of 90 days. Therefore, the HbA1c test can justify an individual’s blood glucose control for the past three months. 

A person with uncontrolled diabetes will have wide range of HbA1C ranging from 7% up to 12%. Malaysia Ministry of Health suggests that our HbA1c test results should be same or less than 6.5%.

Results

Non-diabetic [4.8 - 5.9 %]

Good control [6.0 - 7.0 %]

Fair control [7.1 - 8.0 %]

Poor control [> 8.0 %]

Preparation 

Fasting is required prior to this test for at least 6-8 hours.

This test is done to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacteria that get transmitted through water contaminated with human stool, or through contact with the stool of an infected person. Long standing infection with H pylori can cause problems with our stomach. It is commonly associated with peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcers are sores that develop in the lining of our gastrointestinal tract, commonly at our stomach or small intestine. 

 

Results

A positive result indicates a H pylori infection. 

 

Indication

Indigestion, on and off abdominal pain, fullness sensation, bloating, nausea, burping

 

Preparation

You do not need to fast for an H.pylori blood test

It is a test done to measure the various types of hemoglobin in our blood. It can also detect abnormal hemoglobin and assess their quantity. It is helpful in the evaluation of an individual diagnosed with anemia. 

 

Hemoglobin is a protein found inside our red blood cells. Hemoglobin functions by carrying oxygen from our lungs to tissues and organs all over our body. It also helps in transporting carbon dioxide from various parts of the body all the way back up to our lungs. 

 

The various types of hemoglobin found in our blood include hemoglobin A1 (HbA1), hemoglobin A2 (HbA2), hemoglobin F (HbF), hemoglobin C (HbC) and hemoglobin S (HbS). 

 

An example of abnormal type of hemoglobin is hemoglobin S (HbS), which is found in sickle cell disease. 

 

Indications 

Unexplained anemia, family history of hemoglobinopathy, easily tired, pale skin, yellowish eyes and skin (jaundice), severe pain, growth problems in children

 

Preparation 

You do not need any special preparation for a haemoglobin electrophoresis test. 

The Hepatitis A virus test is a blood test done to show whether an individual has hepatitis A infection or had it in the past. 

Hepatitis is a state whereby our liver becomes inflamed, because of being infected by the virus. It is commonly spread via fecal-oral transmission, which means that a person contracts the disease when they accidently ingest traces of the infected feces from a person infected with Hepatitis A. It can also be transmitted through consuming unwashed contaminated food or water. This is often due to inadequate sanitation or poor hygiene practices. 

 

Risks

Dark colored urine, pale colored feces, easily tired, feverish, nauseous, yellowish eyes and skin (jaundice)

 

Preparation

No fasting required prior to this test.

 It is done to detect HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen), HBsAb (Hepatitis B surface antibody)

 

Hepatitis B infection is a worldwide healthcare problem, which is commonly transmitted through blood and sexually. An infected mother can also pass down the infection to their newborns during the delivery period. 



Risk factors

Common risk factors include sexual contact, accidental needle sticks injury, sharing of needles, blood transfusion, and organ transplantation 



Expected results

If HBsAg is positive. It means that the person is infected with hepatitis B. 

If HbsAb is positive. It shows that the person is protected against hepatitis B.

 

Why do this test? 

  • Routine health screening test
  • It should be screened early because Hepatitis B can be complicated into liver cancer. 

 

Preparation

No fasting required prior to this test.

Hepatitis C is an infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), causing damage and inflammation to the liver. Therefore, this test can detect whether a person has been exposed to the hepatitis C virus at some point in their life. Hepatitis C virus infection is a common chronic bloodborne infection. Up till today, there is no available vaccine to protect us against hepatitis C. 

 

People infected with chronic hepatitis C are prone to liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). 



Risk 

Sharing needles, unprotected sex, work or living in a prison, born to a mother with hepatitis C, HIV infection



Preparation

Fasting is not required prior to this test.

A sample of blood is taken to detect for HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) infection. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV comes in two subtypes, namely HIV-1 and HIV-2. 

 

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight infection and disease.

Risk

Unprotected sex, multiple sexual partners, homosexual, sharing injecting equipment with others,  



Preparations

You don’t need any special preparations for an HIV test

Hs CRP stands for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.  CRP is usually produced by our livers in response to damaged tissues in our body. In heart diseases associated with chronic inflammation, hs-CRP values will be high. 

 

Who should take this test?

To assess the risk of developing a heart attack in patients with pre-existing heart diseases. In patients with acute coronary disease, the CRP level correlates with the progression of the disease. The higher the levels of hs-CRP, the lower the prognosis of the patient. 

 

It is also used to assess the risk of developing a heart disease in asymptomatic individuals for early prevention strategy measures. 

 

Results

Low risk [<1.0 mg/L]

Average risk [1.0-3.0 mg/L]

High risk [3.1 – 10.0 mg/L]

Persistent elevations may represent non-cardiovascular inflammation [> 10.0 mg/L]

 

Procedure

This test does not require fasting.

An iron profile shows us the information about iron in our blood. It’s an important test to detect anemia. It is also able to distinguish between the types of anemia the patient is facing. 

The most common nutritional disorder faced worldwide is iron deficiency anemia, a condition whereby the production of red blood cell is reduced due to low iron stores in the body. 

Common signs & symptoms of iron deficiency:

  • Hair loss
  • Tiredness
  • Shortness of breadth
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Brittle nails
  • Cracked corners of the mouth
  • Heart palpitations/ irregular heartbeat

The various components measure in an iron profile includes:

  • serum iron
  • serum ferritin
  • transferrin saturation (TSAT)
  • total iron binding capacity (TIBC)

Risk factors

Pregnancy, heavy menstrual bleeding, female, chronic diseases, regular blood donation, vegetarian diet. 

Preparations

No fasting is required.

 

The kidney plays an important role in elimination of our body’s waste products and toxins. Assessing the kidney’s function is important in individuals with an existing kidney problem or other pathologies affecting the kidney function. 

 

In a kidney function test, several components are measured. For instance, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate and uric acid.   

 

Risk factors

Diabetes Mellitus, High blood pressure, family history of kidney diseases

 

Normal Values

Sodium [136-145 mmol/L]

Potassium [3.6-5.2 mmol/L]

Chloride [96-108 mmol/L]

Urea [1.7-8.3 mmol/L]

Creatinine [58-122 umol/L]

Calcium [2.20-2.60 mmol/L]

Phosphate [0.87-1.45 mmol/L]

Uric Acid [0.20-0.42 mmol/L]



Preparations

You do not need to fast prior to this test 

Lipids are routinely measured to assess the risk of a heart disease. The types of lipids that are analyzed in our lab includes:

  • total cholesterol
  • triglycerides
  • HDL (high density lipoprotein)
  • LDL (low density lipoprotein) 
  • Total cholesterol / HDL Ratio

 

Cholesterol generally comes from our diet, and it circulates within our blood. Triglycerides are lipids that gives energy to our body. HDL is known as good cholesterol; this is because it carries back cholesterol from all parts of our body back to the liver for removal. On the other hand, LDL is known as bad cholesterol. This is because it carries cholesterol to our body cells, high level of LDL leads to accumulation of cholesterol in our arteries. 

 

Indications

Overweight, obesity, high cholesterol diet, lack of exercise, known heart disease

 

Normal Range

Triglyceride [<1.7 mmol/L]

Total Cholesterol [<5.2 mmol/L]

HDL [>1.03 mmol/L]

Direct LDL [<2.6 mmol/L]

Total cholesterol / HDL ratio [<4.5]

Procedure

You should fast for minimum 8 hours prior to this test 

Liver function test is used to measure certain liver enzymes and proteins in our blood. Certain parameters of this test can show how well the liver is performing its normal functions.

 

It is primarily done to screen for liver infections (hepatitis), liver cirrhosis or it can used to monitor side effects of certain medications. 

 

Risk 

Heavy alcohol consumer, pre-existing liver disease, certain medications, gallbladder diseases, family history of liver disease

 

Indications 

Yellowish skin or eyes (jaundice), dark-colored urine, light-colored urine, feeling tired easily, nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite

 

Normal Range

Total protein [60-87 g/L]

Albumin [35-50 g/L]

Globulin [20-50 g/L]

A/G ratio [1.0-2.2]

Total Bilirubin [<21 umol/L]

AST [<41 U/L]
ALT [<50 U/L]
ALP [<128 U/L]
GGT [10-71 U/L]

 

Procedure

You need to fast for a minimum of 8 hours prior to the test

It is a simple blood test that helps detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria which causes Tuberculosis (TB) infection. It uses interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) technique to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the white blood cells of the individual will release interferon-gamma (IFN-g). This test will then detect the IFN-g concentration in our blood. 

It has a higher sensitivity in detecting Tuberculosis as compared to the Tuberculin Skin Test (TB skin test). 

QuantiFERON TB GOLD Plus uses innovative CD8+ T cell technology, allowing a more accurate assessment of cell-mediated immune response to TB infection. The test is highly accurate, only requiring a single visit. The result is also unaffected by prior BCG vaccination. 

We have two IGRAs test that is available in our center:

- QuantiFERON TB GOLD Plus 

- T Spot TB Test

Preparations

No fasting required. 

 

Are you required to undergo a TB Test for VISA Check Up?

 

Rheumatoid factor are proteins produced by our immune system that can attack normal tissue in the body. The test is used in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This test allows us to measure the amount of rheumatoid factor in our blood.

 

Positive results are suggestive that an individual is suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid factors can also be present in other autoimmune diseases or connective-tissue diseases. However, raised rheumatoid factors can also be detected in a healthy individual.

 

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that typically affects people of any age group, but usually occurs between the ages of 40 and 60. Females are commonly affected as compared to men. 

 

Normal Range

[< 14 IU/mL]

 

Indication

Joint pain, joint stiffness, joint swelling, fatigue, fever

 

Preparation 

There are no special preparations for an RF test. 

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is caused by various bacterias, viruses, or parasites. It is commonly transmitted through sexual activity or skin-to-skin contact. STD profile is for diagnosing specific STDs. 

Undiagnosed STD is a public health concern as an infected individual may unknowingly spread the disease to others. Therefore, it is important to screen for STD in order to treat the infected individual and to treat the sexual partners to prevent unnecessary spread of the infection. 

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a common STD that infects your genital tract. Most people who are infected have no symptoms. The symptoms may not appear until several weeks after you have been exposed to an infected partner. Even when chlamydia causes no symptoms, it can damage your reproductive system and lead to infertility. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Discharge from the penis in men and vagina in women
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Pain during sexual intercourse in women
  • Testicular pain and swelling in men

Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is a common STD caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) which enters your body through small cuts in the skin or mucous membranes, when comes in contact with infected fluids. Most of the time it will not show any signs and symptoms. When present, genital areas sore will appear as blisters on or around genital, rectum or mouth.

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attacks the human immune system and disrupts the body’s ability to defend against infection effectively. It can expose the individual to AIDS. It may be transmitted through contact with body fluids (blood, semen, pre-ejaculation fluids, vaginal fluids & breast milk) with a high concentration of HIV.

Gonorrhea

Bacterial infection that causes painful or burning sensation when urinating; increased vaginal bleeding and discharge in females; and a white, yellow or green discharge from penis and painful or swollen testicles in male. It is a very common infection for young people ages 15-14 years.

Syphilis

Bacterial infection that affects genitals, skin and mucous membrane. Symptoms in adults are divided into four stages. The infection spread through direct contact with a syphilis sore found on the penis, vagina, anus, in the rectum, or on the lips and in the mouth. Primary stage usually shows single or multiple sores which are firm, round and painless which can easily go unnoticed. Secondary stages are usually presented with rough and red rash on the palms of the hands or/and the bottoms of the feet. Latent and late stages are more severe and will develop years after the infection is left untreated.

Trichomoniasis

Parasites called Trichomonas vaginalis usually infects the urinary tract in men and vagina in women. Trichomoniasis causes mild irritation to severe inflammation. Symptoms in men may be presented as itchiness inside the penis, burning sensation while urination or ejaculation, or penile discharge. Women with trichomoniasis may present with itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals, discomfort while urination or a thin discharge with an unusual smell.

Preparations

No fasting required.

 

Syphilis detection tests are blood test used to screen and confirm the presence of Treponema pallidum, a bacteria known to cause syphilis. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). It can lead to serious health consequences if not promptly treated. 

 

Syphilis is transmitted via direct contact from person to person through a chancre. C chancre is a syphilitic sore that can found around the external genitals, inside the vagina, around the anus, inside the rectum or in or around the mouth. Therefore, transmission of syphilis occurs during vaginal, anal or oral sex. 

 

A pregnant mother infected with syphilis can also transmit the infection to their unborn child, resulting in stillbirth or giving birth to a baby who dies shortly after birth. 



Risk

Multiple sexual partners, transactional sex, drug use, sex with a partner recently diagnosed with syphilis. 

 

Preparations

You do not have to avoid any food or drinks prior to this test. 

It is a whole-blood tests that uses Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacteria which causes Tuberculosis (TB) infection. It uses interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) technique to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the white blood cells of the individual will release interferon-gamma (IFN-g). Due to this, this test is able to detect the number of IFN-g producing cells (spots). 

Turn-around time for this test is 4 working days.

Preparations

No fasting required. 

Thyroid function test is a blood test used to measure how well our thyroid glands are functioning. Thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped small organ situated in front of our neck, wrapped around our trachea (windpipe). It functions to produce thyroid hormones, which then enters the blood and is carried to every tissue in the body. It helps regulates an individual’s heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, mood and metabolism.

 

 If our thyroid hormones are produced in excess, it is called hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). On the contrary, if our thyroid hormones are insufficiently produced, we will experience hypothyroidism. 

 

A thyroid function test looks at the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) in the blood. 

 

 

Results

Free T4 [9.1-24.4 pmol/L]

 

Preparations

There is no need to fast before this test. 

Tumor markers are biomarkers that are found in blood, urine and body tissues. Although an elevated level of a tumor marker may suggest the presence of cancer, this alone is not enough to diagnose cancer. Sometimes, noncancerous conditions can cause the levels of certain tumor markers to increase. Therefore, measurements of tumor markers are usually combined with other tests or investigations.

 

Commonly measured tumor markers in clinical laboratories include:

  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) for liver cancer CA-125 for ovarian cancer
  • CA 19-9 for pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancers
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for colon and rectal cancers
  • Cancer antigen (CA) 15-3, a marker for breast cancer

Uric Acid measurement is useful in the diagnosis and treatment of gout, renal failure and urinary stones.

This test is crucial to see if you have a vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D plays an important role in the proper growth and formation of our teeth and bones. It comes in two different sources, which is the exposure of our skin to sunlight and through ingested foods or supplements. 

 

When we are lacked vitamin D (limited morning sun exposure and unbalanced meals), our bones will be soft, malformed and unable to repair normally if it’s damaged. Vitamin D deficiency is called rickets in children and osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults. 

Signs of vitamin D deficiency:

  • Getting sick or infected often
  • Feeling tired easily
  • Bone and back pain
  • Depressed mood
  • Slow wound healing
  • Bone loss
  • Hair loss
  • Muscle weakness

 

Risk

Elderly, obesity, lack of sunlight exposure, malabsorption 

 

Preparations 

No special preparations are required.

 

Preparations

No fasting required. 

KKLIU 1643/2021

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